PhDone! With Dr. Blanche Plaquevent

In the latest in this new series, we talk to Dr. Blanche Plaquevent about her doctorate, recently completed in the department.

After studying in Paris, Blanche Plaquevent received funding from the SWW DTP to do her PhD at the University of Bristol. She passed her viva in July 2021 and will be working as a lecturer in history of gender and sexuality at the University of Glasgow from September.

 

Hi, Blanche! First of all, congratulations on your successful viva! Can you tell us a bit about what your doctoral research was about?

My thesis explores how the idea of sexual revolution got constructed as a political concept in France between 1945 and 1970. Historians have debated on whether a sexual revolution really took place in Europe and North America in the sixties-seventies. My research sheds a new light on this debate by approaching the term of ‘sexual revolution’ literally, as a political concept used at the time to articulate revolutionary politics and sexuality. I explore how revolutionary sexual politics emerged and circulated nationally and transnationally. Relying on published sources about sex and politics from the period 1945-1970 (books, magazines, journals), testimonies, private archives from activists and intellectuals, leaflets, billboards, university and police archives and newspapers, my research traces the emergence of the idea that the personal is political before its widespread advent in the seventies.

Portrait image of Blanche Plaquevent, standing in front of a canal

What did you enjoy most about your project?

For the period that I was studying (1945-1970) and the type of sources I used, very few documents were digitised. It meant that I travelled a lot to access my sources and I really enjoyed it. Although it required a lot of work and organisation, I discovered many different archival centres and visited various cities, such as Paris, Dijon, Strasbourg, Marseille, Caen, and even Amsterdam. It made research really fun and exciting. I guess I was lucky that it was all before the pandemic!

 

Let’s talk about the viva itself. What would you advise someone who is preparing for their own viva?

Don’t overprepare!

I read my PhD once (and worryingly realised I had already forgotten full passages!), and then re-read a few key passages like the introduction and the conclusion. If you can, get one or two friends/colleagues/family members to ask you questions. It can be useful even if they are not really familiar with your research. Being asked very general questions forces you to take a step back and consider your research from a different perspective. Finally, be honest with yourself and acknowledge the potential issues you can identify in your research, and try to articulate why you have made these choices, or even what you would have liked to do differently. I found that being aware of my own shortcomings and trying to understand them (without defending my past choices at all costs) helped me to consider my work confidently before the viva.

Black and white photo shows the wreckage of a car in the foreground and graffiti in the background reading 'je sevis dans les pavés'

Photography by Jo Snapp, published in Walter Lewino, L’Imagination au pouvoir (Paris: Allia, 2018). Available online: http://docpresse.esj-lille.fr/archives/index.php/page/5/

How did you manage the submission of your PhD and job applications in the last year?

Following the advice of my supervisors, I began to formulate a postdoc proposal in the middle of my third year and it came in very handy when I had to start applying for jobs during the 4th year of my PhD. I started applying to grants and academic jobs at the end of 2020, and it intensified between March and July 2021 as more jobs were advertised. I submitted my PhD for examination at the end of April and then had more time to prepare my applications. I must say that receiving waves of job rejections just after submitting the PhD was sometimes challenging. It was hard not to let it cast a shadow on the achievement that is finishing a thesis!

 

What’s next for you? Where can we find your research and/or writing now?

I am joining the University of Glasgow as a lecturer in the history of gender and sexuality. I’ll be teaching undergraduates and postgraduates students and I will be in charge of the International History Summer School.

To find out more about my research, if you speak French, you can read an article I published in Ethnologie Française in 2019 to introduce my research. I am currently working on an article in English which aims at exploring the specificity of postwar French sexual politics in comparison with other forms of sexual politics we are more familiar with today. I hope to submit it soon and I will also shortly start working on the publication of my monograph.

PhDone! With Dr. Xiao Liu

In the second of a new series, we talk to recent doctoral graduate Dr. Xiao Liu about his  research project, viva, and plans for the future.

Xiao (Shawn) Liu just completed his PhD in History in the University of Bristol, studying with Prof. Robert Bickers and Dr Adrian Howkins. His research interest is modern Chinese history, especially the development of science during the period of the Republic of China.

Portrait picture of Dr. Xiao Liu

Q: Hi Xiao. First of all, congratulations on your successful viva! Can you tell us a bit about what your doctoral research was about?

My PhD project is about ‘Meteorology and Politics in Republican China, 1912-1949’, which aims to understand how science was applied by the Chinese Republican State to serve its state-building ambitions. As meteorology achieved a certain development during the Republican era, my thesis demonstrates meteorological achievements as well as explains aspects benefited from meteorological progress. This project intends to advance discussion of the relationship between science and the state, arguing that emerging nations in what we would now call the ‘global south’ also accorded strategic importance to science in national development, including both economic development and their challenge of imperialism. As a soft power tool, boosting national science became a means to contest foreign power in early twentieth century, thus with focusing on the case of the Chinese Republican State, my thesis provides some insight into understanding history of science in others countries as well.

 

Q: How did you become interested in the history of meteorology in China?

I always have a strong interest in history, especially Chinese history. Although my undergraduate major was not related to history, I did attend several courses from the Department of History, which laid a solid foundation for my future research.

In recent years, the history of Chinese science has received more attention than before, and I became curious about scientific development in China. I chose to focus on the period of the Republic of China. After I started my PhD project, I found that meteorological factors were involved in many historical events, so it motivated me to further study it through my research.

Black and white photograph shows esuit-made instruments at the Imperial Observatory in 1945

Unknown photographer. Image courtesy of Stanfield Family, University of Bristol (https://www.hpcbristol.net/visual/js04-045)

Q: What surprised you most doing this research?

Regarding my research, what surprised me most was that there were a huge number of materials relating to my project, much more than I expected.

I did make research on the archives I planned to consult but was a little worried about it because their online websites did not include much useful information for my own project. But when I visited the archives in China, they did store rich materials to support my research. Thus, basing on my experience, it is really important to do field research or archival trips.

 

Q: Any top tips for lunch spots near the Bristol University campus… or the archives you visited?

As my flat is very close to the campus of University of Bristol, I have rich time to walk around our campus and to explore it more comprehensively. There is a small garden behind the building on the Priory Road which is a very nice place, so it is quite convenient for people of our department to go for a walk there when they want to have some relax.

Regarding archives, most archives in China do not have café, so it is better to bring some food in case there is not any restaurant near the archives.

 

Q: Let’s talk about the viva itself. What would you advise someone who is preparing for their own viva?

I highly recommend the examinees to read their PhD thesis again before attending the viva. Do not take ready-made answers because the examiners may ask questions from the high-level conceptual to the detailed ones, so there are always some questions you do not prepare. If you have enough time, maybe read the work of the examiners in advance. When you attend the viva, be confidence with yourself, because it is your thesis, you are the expert on it.

 

Q: What’s next for you? Where can we find your research and/or writing now?

I just participated the 26th International Congress of History of Science and Technology on 30th July, during which I presented my paper about the ‘Application of Meteorology by the Republic of China in the Development of Rural Areas’.

I will return to China in the autumn and will pursue a post-doc.

 

PhDone! with Dr. Thomas M. Larkin

In the first of a new series, we talk to recent doctoral graduate Dr. Thomas Larkin about his  research project, viva, and plans for the future.

Thomas M. Larkin is the Augustine Heard Fellow at the University of Bristol, and a member of the Hong Kong History Project. His current research concerns nineteenth-century Anglo-American and Sino-American social and cultural interactions in China, and the application of global-microhistorical and transimperial methodologies.

Picture shows a portrait of Thomas Larkin

Q: Hi Thomas. First of all, congratulations on your successful viva! Can you tell us a bit about what your doctoral research was about?

My doctoral research focused on the American firm Augustine Heard & Company, active in China and throughout East Asia in the mid-to-late nineteenth century. I used the case study of the firm and its leading partners to argue that the American merchant community active in Hong Kong and China’s treaty ports selectively adapted to British colonial society and culture to advance their personal and commercial position in China, and that in the process they helped consolidate and entrench the racial and socio-cultural hierarchies developing in these ports.

The project was also designed to play with scale and to provide a framework with which global and microhistorical methodologies could be combined. The case study of the firm was analysed within increasingly broad geographic and temporal contexts to better understand how it fit in with the histories of China, Britain, and the United States.

 

Q: How did you become interested in Augustine Heard & Co?

I had originally applied to Bristol with the intention of studying Western indigents in Shanghai’s International Settlement. My early interests were in the relationship between race and class in China, the ways foreigners structured their society to uphold barriers between themselves and the Chinese, and how Chinese observers viewed these potentially embarrassing lower-class Whites. A study of the elite partners of Augustine Heard & Co., with its prominent position amongst the Western firms, seemed a rather dramatic step in the opposite direction. But when I started doing early research into the project and what might be done with it, I found that many of the themes I was interested in remained accessible through the company records – if from a different perspective. Perhaps more significantly, the Heard brothers seemed almost omnipresent in the history of nineteenth-century Sino-Western contact. At least one of the brothers at some point or another bore first-hand witness to the major developments that shaped Sino-Western commerce and politics. I had always wanted to write a global micro-history, and the ubiquity of the Heards made it an increasingly tangible possibility.

Black and white photograph depicts St John's Cathedral and the Augustine Heard & Company house.

St John’s Cathedral and the Augustine Heard & Company house, see www.hpcbristol.net, vh03-29

Q: What did you enjoy most about your project?

I think the most gratifying aspect of the project was deep-diving into the Heard archive and sharing my discoveries with the project’s benefactor, George Cautherley. George is a descendant of the Heard family, and as a tangential product of this research we have been able to confirm many of the particulars of his relationship with his ancestors and with Hong Kong, including the direct line that connects him to one of the firm’s earliest partners, John Heard. It has been fantastic getting to share some of the more significant discoveries with George, and he has been both open to learning more of the family and forthcoming with his own thoughts, advice, introductions, and input. While there were always significant academic contributions that I intended to make with my project, I have also greatly enjoyed these informal exchanges.

 

Q: Any top tips for lunch spots near your archives / libraries / museum collections?

 

I am currently based out of Richmond, within walking distance of the National Archives, and I can’t recommend highly enough escaping the archives on a sunny day and doing your readings by the riverside. At Harvard’s Baker Library I kept to the school cafeteria which is, admittedly, excellent, and has the added bonus of only requiring two minutes of outdoor travel to reach on frigid February mornings. Anything further afield was risky, as while I am Canadian, four years in the UK has ruined my tolerance to the cold.

I’ve a bad habit of forgetting lunch when working, but I do love a good coffeeshop. My preferred café-turned-workspace in Boston, Explorateur, seems to have not survived the pandemic, but if a seat can be found the Tatte Café on Charles Street or the Thinking Cup on Newbury are both good spaces. Classified on Hollywood Road in Hong Kong eased the completion of both a journal article and a chapter, as did Café Libero in Da’an, Taipei (although neither is particularly close to an archive).

 

Q: Let’s talk about the viva itself. What would you advise someone who is preparing for their own viva?

The best advice I received from Robert Bickers and that I would pass on to anyone else is not to over-prepare. I’m not suggesting slacking off, but there is truly no sense in trying to guess what the examiners are going to ask. Both my examiners had excellent questions and insight, but almost none of it was anything I had anticipated beforehand. Reread the thesis a few days before, relax the night of, and treat the viva as a very productive opportunity to get some targeted feedback that will, ideally, make the eventual manuscript a much stronger piece of research.

 

Q: What’s next for you? Where can we find your research and/or writing now?

At the time of writing, I am currently preparing to move to Bristol in September, as I have continued on with the university as Augustine Heard Fellow. I have been remote for the last three and a half years of study, and its about time to do away with the tedious commute from London. I’m in the process of revising an article and working on developing the manuscript to pitch to publishers. I’ve got a couple other projects in the works and am solidifying a plan for the next big research undertaking, but have mostly been enjoying the chance to dig deeper and write about some of the topics that I didn’t get to explore much in the thesis.

Becoming a Public Historian: Issy Coleman

In this series, Dr Jessica Moody, unit co-ordinator of the third year Practice-Based Dissertation option, interviews students about their projects and experiences of this unit. The Practice-Based Dissertation was first introduced at Bristol in 2020-21 and enables students to produce a practical, public-facing ‘public history’ output as well as a 5000 word Critical Reflective Report.

In this interview, Jessica talks to Issy Coleman about her project.

JM: Let’s start from the beginning, what made you choose the Practice-Based Dissertation over the standard Dissertation?

IC: I chose the Practice-Based Dissertation over the standard dissertation because, truthfully, I did not want to write another standard history essay. As history students, we have written countless essays during our undergraduate degree, and therefore I felt the Practice-Based Dissertation would give me the opportunity to try something new. It would push me out of my comfort zone, enable me to be creative and original, and develop new skills. I got a taste of what ‘public history’ entailed in the second-year core module ‘History in Public’, as well as the special field unit ‘Remembering Transatlantic Enslavement.’ Both units were hindered due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Nevertheless, they were interesting and therefore I knew I wanted to explore the public history field further.

JM: Could you tell us about your public history project?

IC: My public-facing project is a blog on two important histories of Black popular protest in Bristol: the St Pauls disturbance (1980) and the fall of the Colston statue (2020). My blog has several entries on these two events, exploring the themes of race, law and order, and activism. The idea is that each entry allows me to look at different angles and perspectives, placing different lens’ on the history of these two significant events. One of the main goals for my public-facing project was to open the conversation about these two histories. In order to achieve this, I integrated an interactive ‘Padlet’ feature onto my website whereby users could contribute and converse about the topics discussed.

JM: Why did you want to undertake this project?

IC: I think probably because the removal of Edward Colston’s statue is so recent, these are two histories that have not yet been explored together, so my hope was to tread new ground with an original idea and analysis. Additionally, since arriving in Bristol to begin university in late 2018, I have been fascinated by the city’s history, particularly that of transatlantic enslavement. I have since felt passionate to explore the other angles of the city’s history.

Screenshot of Issy Coleman's blog page

JM: What did you enjoy most about the Practice-Based Dissertation?

IC: I really enjoyed the process of creating, designing, and editing my website. I felt very proud to see my ideas come together in one space.

JM: What did you find challenging?

IC: I found it difficult to strike a balance with the language and tone of my blog posts. I tried to limit the use of jargon to make my blog accessible to the widest possible audience as well as maximise user engagement and understanding. I also found writing my report was difficult at times. Previously in my degree, I had never had to reflect on my practice or speak in the first person. It felt particularly strange to acknowledge the aspects of my work that didn’t go so well.

JM: Did you come across any problems that you needed to address or solve?

IC: One problem that I encountered, which is a pertinent issue for public historians, was gaining access to authorised images of the St Pauls disturbance (1980) that could be used on my website. This was made even harder with the pandemic, as I could not visit archives to see available images. In hindsight, this is something that I should have considered earlier in the process.

JM: What do you feel you’ve learnt from this process?

IC: I have learnt how important and relevant public history really is. Understanding the past is a gateway to understanding the present, and public history offers exciting and creative ways that that this can be done.

JM: What do you think public history needs more of? Do you have any reflections or advice from your project for public historians?

IC: Based on public history related literature, collaboration is at the core of the discipline. Therefore, I think that public historians must not only continue to collaborate with each other, but also the general public. It is the public that is at the heart of this strand of history, and so to be successful we must ensure that we are constantly communicating and engaging with them.

JM: What advice do you have for students just starting the Practice-Based Dissertation?

IC: I would probably say start early with creating your public-facing project. From my own experience, creating the website took much longer than I had anticipated. You need to factor in time for things to go ‘wrong’, for example I had serious technical difficulties with my website that I hadn’t really accounted for within my schedule of completion. In addition, this probably applies for both the standard dissertation and the Practice-Based one, but choose a topic you are really interested in. The dissertation is an 8-month process and therefore you need to remain interested in your topic throughout. I think it would be hard to stay motivated otherwise.

JM: How can people find out more about your project?

IC: The blog can be found here.

JM: Is there anything else you’d like to add?

IC: For anyone contemplating whether to choose the Practice-Based Dissertation – go for it! I am so glad that I took this unit as opposed to the standard 10,000-word dissertation, and I know so many people that wish they had chosen it.

 

 

Becoming a Public Historian: Josh Hillman

In this series, Dr Jessica Moody, unit co-ordinator of the third year Practice-Based Dissertation option, interviews students about their projects and experiences of this unit. The Practice-Based Dissertation was first introduced at Bristol in 2020-21 and enables students to produce a practical, public-facing ‘public history’ output as well as a 5000 word Critical Reflective Report.

In this interview, Jessica talks to Josh Hillman about his project.

 

JM: Let’s start from the beginning, what made you choose the Practice-Based Dissertation over the standard Dissertation?

JH: Whilst I’ve mostly enjoyed essay writing at University, the prospect of undertaking a piece of work that enabled me to showcase a different set of skills really appealed to me. Also, the possibility of producing a project that could help educate and influence people outside of University gave a purpose beyond merely completing my degree, which really motivated and inspired me.

Portrait of Josh Hillman

JM: Could you tell us about your public history project?

JH: The project I created was a website about the Second Iraq War and British Terrorist events. The site combines the use of short documentaries, information pages, interactive quizzes and learning tools in order to educate people about the links between British action in Iraq and events of Islamic extremism. The site’s main goal is to exist as an online ‘lesson’, meaning the content is presented in a format whereby the site user is guided through the site, building their knowledge and understanding as they interact with the content.

JM: Why did you want to undertake this project?

JH: As well as these events and issues being particularly interesting to me, my project aims to achieve multiple objectives. Firstly and most importantly, it counters racist and Islamophobic narratives that currently exist in society by exhibiting how British military and political failures have contributed to creating a society whereby the risk of Islamic terrorist attacks are a reality. The project also contributes to the field of history by placing the Second Iraq War into ‘history’, as we reach a time where it becomes removed from current affairs. Doing so is important due to both secondary school and University students no longer benefitting from having a lived experience of the events.

Screenshot of Britain, Iraq and Terrorism website

JM: What did you enjoy most about the Practice-Based Dissertation?

JH: Having the ability to work on a project that led me to using many different skillsets (as well as learning lots of new ones) first and foremost made the project extremely enjoyable. The Practice-Based Dissertation also gives you much more freedom than the standard 10,000-word dissertation. Whilst there’s still the requirement to produce an output, how you go about that is completely up to you. The combination of this freedom and this new way of working really motivated me and made me feel like I was working more like I would in a job as opposed to how people traditionally work at University, and as a final-year student that feeling was the most enjoyable thing about doing this style of dissertation.

JM: What did you find challenging?

JH: The same freedom that made this project so fun also presented a lot of challenges. Creating a website meant that the amount of information I could have potentially included was endless and having to limit myself in what I produced was difficult. This was made harder by the fact that the Practice-Based Dissertation also requires you to write a 5,000-word report on your project and trying to ensure I balanced my time out in a sort of even manner between the two was also challenging.

JM: Did you come across any problems that you needed to address or solve?

JH: The main problem I found with the creating of a Public History project was the legality of using images/video from other sites or authors as part of my project. When creating my documentaries, I really wanted to use real footage of the events I was describing in order that my videos were engaging and interesting. This meant spending a lot of time finding footage that was copyright free, and also making sure that I provided attribution for absolutely everything that required it. Obviously this took up a decent amount of time – meaning that I really had to learn to allocate time in my planning to dealing with unforeseen obstacles.

JM: What do you feel you’ve learnt from this process?

JH: From creating my project I’ve really come to appreciate the value of Public History. The majority of people learn their history not from academic journals or books but from websites, exhibitions and TV etc, meaning that these projects are extremely important in shaping and influencing peoples perspectives and understandings. As a result of this, I think University History students should do more to interact with Public History.

JM: What do you think public history needs more of? Do you have any reflections or advice from your project for public historians?

JH: I think Public History needs more historians presenting their expertise in the shape of Public History projects. Doing so would improve the amount of materials available for the public to engage with, and as historians we surely want as many people to know as much about history as possible! If I were to give any advice to public historians, it would be to expect the unexpected when creating a project, as new information, issues and challenges can arise at any time and change the way you create your project.

JM: What advice do you have for students just starting the Practice-Based Dissertation?

JH: Work out the purpose of your project early on. Therefore, once you start designing your project and content, you can always refer back to your purpose to help you shape your work. Also, there is great value in engaging with other people who are doing the PBD as you can see what good ideas and challenges they also have, which can help improve your own project.

JM: How can people find out more about your project?

JH: The website is available at this address: www.britainiraqterrorism.co.uk

JM: Is there anything else you’d like to add?

JH: I think I’ve covered everything I had to say. Thank you!

Becoming a Public Historian: Nicola Howard

In this series, Dr Jessica Moody, unit co-ordinator of the third year Practice-Based Dissertation option, interviews students about their projects and experiences of this unit. The Practice-Based Dissertation was first introduced at Bristol in 2020-21 and enables students to produce a practical, public-facing ‘public history’ output as well as a 5000 word Critical Reflective Report.

In this interview, Jessica talks to Nicola Howard about her project.

 

JM: Let’s start from the beginning, what made you choose the Practice-Based Dissertation over the standard Dissertation?

NH: I decided to do the Practice-Based Dissertation after really enjoying throwing myself into the second year Public History Project for assessment during lockdown (for the core second year unit, History in Public), where I created a campaign displaying the history of the university’s new Temple Meads Campus. I achieved the best grade of my university career thus far in this assessment, and realised I really enjoyed thinking about how I could communicate history to the public through design. I jumped at the opportunity to do something so fun and creative as my dissertation.

Portrait image of Nicola

JM: Could you tell us about your public history project?

NH: I created an Instagram account called Fighting Fake History to raise awareness of the issue of fake history on social media. To compliment this, I also created a website where you could find out more about the project and the creator.

JM: Why did you want to undertake this project?

NH: I realised very early on that I wanted to address the dangers and the nature of fake history online as I saw many examples happening around me. I felt like it was a branch of fake news that isn’t very well explored, and mostly goes unchallenged as social media users don’t usually critically analyse every post they see. I wanted to reach the young adult age range, so I made an Instagram account to connect this information to them.

Logo shows a magnifying glass, and the text 'Fighting Fake History'

JM: What did you enjoy most about the Practice-Based Dissertation?

NH: I enjoyed creating for my Instagram account the most. A lot of hours went into researching and deciding a colour palate and design style that would excite and entice my audience. I also created a logo for it, which made it feel like a real brand. It was really satisfying when these elements started clicking together.

I also really enjoyed the fact that my style of intervention was totally unique, as it did more than just point out different fake histories but also raised awareness of the dangers of habitual, uncritical engagement with material on social media.

Screenshot of Instagram posts from the Fighting Fake History handle

JM: What did you find challenging?

NH: I found balancing the workload challenging, especially as I changed my output idea quite close to the end. When it came to posting on the Instagram account, I wasn’t as consistent as I would have liked due to also trying to write my report and fulfil other uni/extra-curricular commitments. If I were to go back I would have definitely tried to make these decisions a little bit earlier on, but sometimes these things just happen and creative inspiration comes at awkward times!

JM: Did you come across any problems that you needed to address or solve?

NH: The reason why I changed my project close to the end was to solve an issue of reach. I was originally going to create three infographic posters to display this information on a website, which I could circulate online. However, to reach my target audience, I didn’t think this was an appropriate medium, nor one with much shareability to spread the message. To overcome this, I researched different platforms and changed my output to Instagram and a website to increase accessibility.

Logo reads 'Question What You See'

JM: What do you feel you’ve learnt from this process?

NH: I have learnt to have more confidence in my skills and ideas as a historian. Often, the essays and assessments you write throughout your undergraduate degree just get suspended on blackboard for eternity. The practice-based dissertation, however, brings your ideas alive and to the public. I learnt to embrace this and step outside of my comfort zone.

JM: What do you think public history needs more of? Do you have any reflections or advice from your project for public historians?

NH: I think social media could be used more as a tool to connect more young people to history in engaging ways.

JM: What advice do you have for students just starting the Practice-Based Dissertation?

NH: Try your best to make what you do as unique as you possibly can. For me, this involved making an intervention into something that no one else had done and it was really rewarding.

Also, keep asking questions to yourself about why you are doing things the way you are, as it will help inform your report.

JM: How can people find out more about your project?

NH: You can find out more about my project by following the Instagram account and reading through the posts!

@fightingfakehistory

 

Becoming a Public Historian: Kate Sudakova

In this series, Dr Jessica Moody, unit co-ordinator of the third year Practice-Based Dissertation option, interviews students about their projects and experiences of this unit.

The Practice-Based Dissertation was first introduced at Bristol in 2020-21 and enables students to produce a practical, public-facing ‘public history’ output as well as a 5000 word Critical Reflective Report.

In this interview, Jessica talks to Kate Sudakova about her project.

A little bit about Kate: “I am from the small city of Astrakhan which stands on the Volga river in Russia. Astrakhan is known as the Russian capital of caviar. Since I was born, I was surrounded by people who knew everything about sturgeons and caviar, my parents and my grandmother. My family has been involved in aquaculture and sturgeon breeding for more than 20 years. I spent my childhood on a fish farm and learned a lot about fish that have been on our planet since the age of the dinosaurs. So, when the opportunity to create my own project arose, I had no doubt about the topic of the research. I wanted to carry on the legacy of my family and help save these unique and amazing species.”

 

JM: Let’s start from the beginning, what made you choose the Practice-Based Dissertation over the standard Dissertation?

KS: Since I started studying history at university, I always wondered in what ways I could use my knowledge in real life. In the second year I had a brief introduction into the public history but due to COVID I couldn’t fully engage with it. Nevertheless, I’ve finally found an answer to my question and was eager to try myself in producing something valuable for a non-academic audience. When I found out about the Practice-Based Dissertation I understood that it was my chance to make a real contribution and apply my knowledge in practice.

JM: Could you tell us about your public history project?

KS: My project is a combination of environmental history, public history and environmentalism. I addressed the problem which I’ve been familiar with since my early childhood – the problem of sturgeon extinction in the Volga-Caspian region. My research and practical output focused on the USSR industrialisation, construction of hydroelectric power stations along the Volga river, in particular, and discussed its effects on the natural habitat of sturgeons. With my project I intended to introduce a fresh look at this problem, from a historical point of view.

JM: Why did you want to undertake this project?

KS: The Caspian sturgeon makes up 90% of the world reserves of various sturgeon species. To the present moment, connection between the USSR industrialisation and sturgeon extinction has not been explicitly highlighted. The majority of people consider poaching the main cause of the problem,  while damming of the Volga river produced an almost equally detrimental ecological effect. With my project I wanted to raise awareness about this critical situation.

JM: What did you enjoy most about the Practice-Based Dissertation?

KS: To be honest, I enjoyed everything! From the research to the practical implementation. From the very beginning I understood that with my project I could really make a difference and tell people about a very important problem. I myself learned a lot and was terrified with the scale of the issue. So with every document I read, I was convinced that I was doing the right thing with producing this project.

JM: What did you find challenging?

KS: Probably the biggest challenge was the lack of information about the topic in English. As a native Russian speaker, I did not have a problem with understanding but translating the material into English was quite difficult and time consuming. I conducted two almost 2-hour interviews, both in Russian, and had to translate almost everything to include several parts in my documentary.

JM: Did you come across any problems that you needed to address or solve?

KS: I had one major problem at the final stage of my practical output production. I had some help with video editing and the document was too big to be downloaded to any cloud storage. This meant that I couldn’t check it and upload to YouTube. Finally, I decided to ask a person who did the editing to upload the film using my YouTube account and, fortunately, everything worked out great.

JM: What do you feel you’ve learnt from this process?

KS: I’ve learnt that everything can be solved and there is no need to panic or worry. Just sit and think about all possible options, one of them will always work.

JM: What do you think public history needs more of? Do you have any reflections or advice from your project for public historians?

KS: I genuinely think that public history should be taught more on history courses. I myself was briefly introduced into the field only during my second year. If history students knew more about it, I’m sure that much more of them would want to explore it and become public historians. On the practical side, I would say that my main recommendation is not to overthink when it comes to the practical output. Always keep in mind that the audience is non-academic and not everything a historian understands would be clear to a non-historian.

JM: What advice do you have for students just starting the Practice-Based Dissertation?

KS: My main advice is to find a topic which you’re really interested in. This way you will enjoy every aspect of your practice-based dissertation and will produce a truly amazing project!

JM: How can people find out more about your project?

KS: Through the website I produced, which you can find here!

JM: Is there anything else you’d like to add?

KS: I want to encourage third year history students to take the practice-based dissertation because it is an unforgettable experience where you could actually see how history can be useful outside the university walls.

Becoming a Public Historian: Haley Jensen

In this new series – ‘Becoming a Public Historian’ – Dr Jessica Moody, unit co-ordinator of the third year Practice-Based Dissertation option, interviews students about their projects and experiences of this unit.

The Practice-Based Dissertation was first introduced at Bristol in 2020-21 and enables students to produce a practical, public-facing ‘public history’ output as well as a 5000 word Critical Reflective Report.

In this interview, Jessica talks to Haley Jensen about her project.

JM: Let’s start from the beginning, what made you choose the Practice-Based Dissertation over the standard Dissertation?

HJ: Initially I chose the practice-based dissertation because I thought it would teach me practical skills for working after graduation, as I didn’t see myself going on to pursue a PHD in history. Also, your project could actually influence and teach people outside of academia something about history which kind of motivated me to take this unit!

JM: Could you tell us about your public history project?

HJ: My project is a website on Phillis Wheatley and the high society people she met when she travelled to London in 1773. Wheatley was stolen from West Africa as a child, sent on the Middle Passage, enslaved and sold to a rich family in Boston as young as seven or eight years old. Despite the horrific trauma and racism she suffered, she became an internationally recognised poet. My project aims to celebrate her success by showing her famous interactions with well-known figures like Benjamin Franklin to highlight how successful she was.

JM: Why did you want to undertake this project?

HJ: I am from America and moved to the UK for university, and as a nerdy history obsessed kid, I loved learning about revolutionary American history. I would read kids’ books, watch tv shows, and force my friends to play a game of tag where one side was ‘redcoats’ and the other side being ‘patriots’. So as a kid I knew a lot about the big men from the period like George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, Benedict Arnold, and even military generals. Looking back, it’s upsetting that I couldn’t name any women or enslaved people from this period. The public history of the 18th century is totally biased to not include the stories of women and people of colour. I read a post online about Phillis Wheatley and became passionate about learning about her. She was so successful and it is really upsetting she’s not well-remembered or honoured in public history. Initially my project was aimed to educate American school kids about Wheatley, but as the year went on this changed to be made for general 18th century history fans, as her story is so important to tell.

JM: What did you enjoy most about the Practice-Based Dissertation?

HJ: I really had a lot of fun with this project that I don’t think I would have had with a traditional dissertation. There is so much freedom in how each project is undertaken. For example, my website includes portraits of the people she corresponded with. It was kind of a fun challenge finding these pictures, it felt like a little art history in my project so very different from normal essays. I then included letters that mention Wheatley or were written by her. These were kind of hard to find, but cool because I got to engage with history I don’t normally do in my degree. I found letters from Voltaire and Benjamin Franklin, who I loved learning about in high school but didn’t learn about in my degree, so it’s cool choosing different aspects of history in your blog. I loved being able to have a creative outlet designing my blog, like picking different colours, formatting stuff, and being artistic, which I would not have with the traditional dissertation.

And as a side note, I emailed my final project to my middle school history teacher, and she said she would now teach her class about Phillis Wheatley which is so awesome! This project is cool because you can reach a bigger group of people outside of university!

JM: That IS cool! What did you find challenging?

HJ: Time management was kind of difficult with this project, I loved working on my website. So would spend a lot of time on that as opposed to writing my 5,000-word essay. The website always felt like there could be additional information added, new people added under who she met, even new pages on the site added, and formatting changes to be made. It was a fun creative outlet making the website, but I had to remind myself to focus on the essay as I was spending too much time on the website!

JM: Did you come across any problems that you needed to address or solve?

HJ: Yes! I came across issues within a lot of existing public history on the internet about Wheatley. So basically, when Wheatley was a young teenage girl enslaved, she wrote a poem called ‘On Being Brought from Africa to America’, in which she expresses gratitude towards her enslavement as she became Christian from it. Therefore, a lot of online blogs on Wheatley reinstate this and imply she was a supporter of slavery. This is totally untrue; the blogs completely ignore her other writings like a letter to Lord Dartmouth, where she expresses the pain her family felt when she was kidnapped and her love of liberty. My website tries to amend this historical inaccuracy by showing her connections to abolitionists and the letter to Lord Dartmouth.

JM: What do you feel you’ve learnt from this process?

HJ: I learned a lot about myself! I really enjoyed this project and felt passionate about public history and its inspired me to pursue a masters next year in a degree related to public history! I would not have known I wanted my life to go in the direction of public history without the project!

JM: What do you think public history needs more of? Do you have any reflections or advice from your project for public historians?

HJ: Personally, I would advocate for more projects on Phillis Wheatley, but I am biased ha-ha. I am no expert, but there seems to be a shift on right now within public history to being more inclusive of different people’s history and more respectful of different backgrounds. Like overall a shift away from the ‘big men’ in history I mentioned at the start of the interview like Washington. All of this makes this unit even more exciting, like within my group we were all covering diverse topics. From really local history about the Colston Statue, Windrush’s legacy, to global history with post war black American history, and the US’s involvement in Chile.

JM: What advice do you have for students just starting the Practice-Based Dissertation?

HJ: I’m sure next year will be different with in person learning, but we had Zoom chats with all group members who were doing different topics. We created a group chat on Facebook to message for advice when things come up. That was super useful so I might recommend that!

JM: How can people find out more about your project?

HJ: Here is the link to the website!

JM: Is there anything else you’d like to add?

HJ: No that’s all! Thank you so much for interviewing me!

Featured Historian: Layla Madanat

Layla Madanat graduated with a BA in History in 2018. You can watch her documentary ‘Mosaic’ here. 

Hi Layla, thanks for joining us today. So, what have you been up to since graduating?

It’s been a bit of a whirlwind!

I was very lucky to receive a scholarship to go straight onto study an MSc in Gender, Development and Globalisation at LSE in September 2018, which was an incredible interdisciplinary academic experience. I got to do some really amazing research, including writing a dissertation titled: “Negotiating Masculinities, Differences and Critiques Abroad: A postcolonial feminist analysis of young men’s experiences of international volunteering.”

Whilst I was studying I carried on setting up as an artist, directing productions across London.

Since finishing my MSc, I’ve had a crazy time continuing to freelance across arts fundraising, political lobbying, classical music and now in anti-sexual exploitation and social justice, whilst continuing to work as an artist myself!

Most recently, I was lucky enough to graduate as one of 12 young leaders on the year-long “Making Lemonade” programme run by Sour Lemons, working to dismantle power systems across arts and culture in the UK.

Portrait of Layla Madanat

What was your favourite thing about studying at Bristol? 

Studying at Bristol was absolutely informative in where my life has gone since graduating.

Asides from being part of such a supportive department and being really active in society life, the standout thing in my experience was the fact that being in a city university meant I had real, meaningful interaction with the Bristol community outside of the University bubble.

In my very first year at Bristol University, I was part of a group that established ‘Process Theatre’. Four years later, we continue to work with the incredible Bristol charity One25, increasing public engagement and awareness of the work they do by presenting some of the real stories of women in Bristol who turn to street sex work to survive. I then volunteered with the charity, cooking and in drop-in.

Working so closely with a local charity, as well as nannying and working in children’s parties made me feel like a real part of the city, and has strengthened my connection to the city.

 

How has your degree influenced what you have done since? 

It’s always interesting to see what people who study History go on to do, as I think it’s one of the few degrees that can take you wherever you want to go.

Having the chance to study such a wide range of topics at Bristol helped me find the bits of History that interest me the most, and led me to choose a Master’s degree focused on gender and race studies. Bristol was the first time I had the chance to curate my own curriculum, and made me able to focus on the histories behind the inequalities I was driven to change in society.

But it’s also affected the work I lean towards as an artist, as I tend to work with under-represented writers and creators, looking to radically decolonise the arts and culture sector. It’s also shaped how I practice, with the analytical and research skills I learnt helping me create my own unique approach to work.

 

What advice would you give students doing History now? 

Choose a unit completely outside your comfort zone.

University is one of the only times you can do things like that without the pressure of contract and commitment. At worst, you learn about something new but decide that it’s not for you after a term. At best, you can find a whole new field that interests you. That’s what I did, and it’s transformed the way I approach research. I don’t think I can go back to not working in an interdisciplinary way again!

 

What’s the best thing you’ve read lately?

This is hard. I think I’ll go with The Luminaries by Eleanor Catton. In 2013, it became the longest book and Catton the youngest author to have ever won the Booker Prize. It’s an adventure mystery set in the goldfields in New Zealand in 1866, that leaves you guessing till the very end when it culminates in one of the most satisfying endings I’ve ever read.

If you want something a bit more beautifully frustrating and abstract, go for The Unconsoled by Kazuo Ishiguro. Written entirely in a dreamlike state with essentially no logic at all, it’s hilarious how wild the journey it takes you on is.

 

What is your must-do Bristol activity?

Abbots Pool! In winter, the woods make for an amazing walk, but in summer you can lounge in the sun across the woods and by the pool. It’s idyllic. (I’d say go swimming, but I don’t think that’s allowed anymore…)

Honestly, just walk without a map and without a purpose. Some of my favourite Bristol spots were found just wondering down through Stokes Croft and beyond, and seeing what I came across.

 

What’s next for you? 

My current approach to my work is “What can I try next?” I hope to continue along my non-linear career path across arts, culture, social justice and academia. I wish I’d known that a few years ago, when it seemed everyone around me was heading into a grad scheme in the city. I’m so glad it works for some people, but if it doesn’t sit right with you, it doesn’t have to be the only future you imagine for yourself.

I have a few artistic projects like my documentary “mosaic” that I’m going to be developing in 2021, going to take an Arabic course in either Jordan or Lebanon, and, at some point, take the leap and apply for a PhD. Just keep trying things and seeing where life takes me.

As long as you know the why behind your journey, the how and what of it becomes completely flexible and, ultimately, more exciting.

A Chinese geologist at Bristol: Yu Jianzhang 俞建章 (1898-1980)

Today, 17 December 2020, marks the eighty-fifth anniversary of the first award of a PhD by the University of Bristol to a Chinese student, Yu Jianzhang. Yu received his award from Vice-Chancellor Thomas Loveday in a ceremony in the Great Hall. As part of the ‘100 Years of PGR’ project, being co-ordinated by the University’s Bristol Doctoral College, supported by the Brigstow Institute and our John Reeks, a team including two historians has been developing a bank of material about the history of PhD study at Bristol. Following on from our earlier story about the first Chinese undergraduate at Bristol, current history PhD student Liu Xiao — who is working on the history of science in China — has built on their work, and on materials provided by colleagues at Jilin University, to pen this introduction to Yu Jianzhang’s life and career.

What prompted a Chinese scholar to study for a doctorate at the University of Bristol?[1] The city had very little by way of a profile in China in the 1930s, and there were very few Chinese undergraduate students there, nor was there any sort of Chinese community in Bristol. The story of the first Chinese PhD student of the University of Bristol illustrates an individual’s pursuit of advanced knowledge as well as his ambition to serve his motherland.

Yu Jianzhang (俞建章, known in his time at Bristol as Chien Chang Yu), born in 1898, was an influential geologist and educationist in twentieth century China. Growing up in a poor family in Anhui Province, Yu realised the importance of knowledge from a very young age and that the only way to improve his life was through education. Therefore, by making great efforts in learning, Yu achieved excellent grades among his classmates, on the basis of which he was admitted to Peking University, one of the top academic institutions in China, to study for a bachelor’s degree in 1920.[2]

Fig 1. Yu Jianzhang in 1927. Source: Qingnian Lizhihui Huiwu Jiwen 2, 1927.

At Peking University Yu commenced what would become a distinguished lifetime’s career in geology. There Yu met his long-term mentor Li Siguang 李四光, widely regarded as the leading geologist in modern China. Under Li’s guidance, Yu participated in two field trips during his undergraduate study, which laid a very solid foundation for his future academic research.[3] In addition, due to his outstanding achievements, Yu was also given the opportunity in 1924 to visit Japan on behalf of Peking University, which helped him develop a better understanding of overseas geological research.[4]

Yu Jianzhang commenced his PhD study in the University of Bristol in the winter of 1933, nearly a decade after graduating from Peking University in 1924. Before his trip to Britain, Yu taught at Zhongzhou University in Kaifeng (1924-28) and later worked as an assistant researcher in the Institute of Geology in Shanghai. This was part of Academia Sinica, the Republic of China’s highest-level official scientific institution.[5] Li Siguang had been appointed director of the Institute in 1928, and Li’s appreciation of Yu’s talent led him to bring Yu south to work with him. For China in the first half of twentieth century, a major problem faced by the scientific community was a shortage of trained scientists. Li had received his PhD from the University of Birmingham and this had equipped him to make a leading contribution to the development of the study of geology in China. Yu realised that studying abroad was the way to further improve his academic research level to an international standard. Hence, following in Li’s footsteps, Yu Jianzhang was sponsored by the Institute of Geology to study in Britain in 1933.[6]

To achieve his ambition, Yu decided to study in the University of Bristol, which was undoubtedly the ideal institution for him. Yu’s mentor in the University of Bristol was a British geologist – Stanley Smith (1883-1955), who was regarded as a world expert in the study of Palaeozoic corals.[7] It should be noticed that China did not have any specialist studying corals at that time, and Yu’s task was to become the authority in this field. Accordingly, the achievements of Dr. Smith attracted Yu’s attention and motivated him to study in Bristol. He wrote at the time that ‘in comparison with Woods and Elles who taught in the University of Cambridge, it seems that studying with Dr. Smith was the best choice in terms of my research field’.[8] Moreover, ‘compared with spending more than 300 pounds a year for living in Cambridge, the relative low-cost of living in Bristol’ was also another reason attracting Yu to select there.[9]

As was to be expected, Yu found no Chinese compatriots in the city of Bristol, but such circumstances also made him more open to the Western way of life and learning. He spent his weekends in London or Cambridge attending lectures or searching for materials. During holidays, he would start an internship in the British Museum.[10] In his daily life, British etiquette also impressed him a lot, which he summed up as the ‘maintenance of order’, illustrating an embodiment of civilisation. Yu attributed it to the benefits of education and thought that ‘developing education was a priority for China to realise national salvation because it could shape youth’s ideology and form habits’.[11]

Of his life in Bristol, we have few other traces. It is probable that Yu took part in events held by the university’s Geological Society, and the monthly meetings of the Geological Section of the Bristol Naturalists’ Society, which met to hear talks in the university, or went on field trips led by department staff which might finish with refreshments and snacks courtesy of the landed gentry across whose estates the members had rambled. The first of these that took place during his time in Bristol involved a walk across the Suspension Bridge, into Leigh Woods, and the last was an excursion to Chipping Sodbury. One talk that might have resonated with Yu, given the underlying politics that concerned him, was given by Dr. F.S. Wallis, deputy director of the City Museum & Art Gallery on ‘Geology and the Citizen’, which outlined ‘modern methods of mass instruction in popular science’.[12]

Although materials about Stanley Smith’s valuation on Yu have not been found yet, it seems that he was quite satisfied with the progress made by the first Chinese PhD student in the University of Bristol. After only two years’ research, Yu was able to complete his doctorate in the winter of 1935. On 17 December 1935, at a short ceremony in the Great Hall of the university, the award of PhD was conferred on Yu by the Vice-Chancellor, Dr. Thomas Loveday.[13] The thesis, ‘The Tengninian (Lower Carboniferous) Corals of South China’, received great attention among the university’s geological community.[14] Yu’s friendship with Dr. Smith did not end with graduation. Supervisor and student co-authored an article – ‘A Revision of the Coral Genus Aulina Smith and Descriptions of New Species from Britain and China’, which was published in the Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society in 1943.[15] When both China and Britain struggled during the Second World War, we see that the alumnus of the University of Bristol still kept in touch and maintained a link through scientific exchange and cooperation.

Fig. 2. Li Siguang (first from left) and Yu Jianzhang (in the middle) on a field trip in Guangxi Province in 1939

As Yu was assigned by the Institute of Geology, he remembered his responsibility in developing China with advanced science. While studying at Peking University, he had joined the Youth Inspirational Association青年励志会, an organisation formed by young intellectuals to promote education aiming to ‘save’ China. Subsequently, when Yu studied in Bristol, he remained a member of the association and expressed his opinions in its official journals, particularly encouraging Chinese youth to receive modern education. Benefitting from his experience overseas at University of Bristol, Yu put this belief into practice in his later career.

Being an expert on coral research in China, he established the “Mesocorallia” order and discovered many new genera and species of heterocorals. His research on heterocorals filled the gap of this category in China. After the establishment of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, Yu became a member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the supreme national academy for the natural sciences in the PRC. In 1951, Yu engaged in the preparation work for the establishment of China’s first geological junior college—the Geological Junior College of Northeast China. The former first Chinese doctoral student at University of Bristol, now began to recruit and train the first batch of geological doctoral students in the PRC.[16] He also maintained close connection with Li Siguang in terms of geological education, thus opening a new chapter in the training of scientific talent (Figure 3).

Figure 3. Letter from Yu Jianzhang to Li Siguang, 1965 March 15th.
Source: Ma Shengyun, Ma Yue & Ma Jin, eds., Li Siguang he Tade Shidai [Li Siguang and His Era], Beijing: Science Press, 2012, pp. 246.

Yu devoted the rest of his life to teaching and scientific exploration. From 1964, Yu was vice-chancellor of the Changchun College of Geology, which was incorporated into Jilin University in 2000. Besides, he actively participated in comprehensive regional geological research in Northeast China, laying a foundation for the collection of geological information and contributing to the large-scale economic construction of this region. In 1979, Yu was elected as a member of the International Sub-commission on Carboniferous Stratigraphy at the 9th International Conference on Carboniferous Stratigraphy.[17] He died in Jilin in 1980.

Today, the Chinese government continues to support students to pursue doctoral study at the University of Bristol. In the light of this continuity across nine decades, we might well remember Yu Jianzhang, who set an example through his own efforts for succeeding generations – as a Chinese scientist who applied knowledge to realise his ambitions for himself personally, and for China.

Figure 4. Yu Jianzhang working in Changchun College of Geology
Source: Photo provided by Jilin University

 

Bibliography:

China Association for Science and Technology, Zhongguo Kexue Jishu Zhuanjia Luezhuan 中国科学技术专家略传[Brief Biography of Chinese Scientific and Technological Experts], Vol.1 of Geology, Hebei: Hebei Jiaoyu Chubanshe, 1996.

Lai, Jiang & Fen, Xiao, Li Siguang李四光[Li Siguang], Beijing: China Juvenile and Children Books Publishing House, 2005.

Shengyun, Ma, Yue, Ma & Jin, Ma, eds., Li Siguang he Tade Shidai李四光和他的时代 [Li Siguang and His Era], Beijing: Science Press, 2012.

Yu, Jianzhang, ‘Huiyi Lisiguang Laoxiansheng回忆李四光老先生[Memories of Li Siguang]’, in Tong Zongsheng, ed., Daxue Xiaozhang Yi Laoshi Sanwen Xuan 大学校长忆老师散文选, Hunan: Hunan Wenyi Chubanshe, 1995.

[1] Jianzhang Yu, ‘Yu Jianzhang Zi Yingguo Bulisituo Laihan [Yu Jianzhang’s Letter from Bristol]’, Qingnian Lizhihui Huiwu Jikan 6/7 (1934):844.
[2] China Association for Science and Technology, Zhongguo Kexue Jishu Zhuanjia Luezhuan [Brief Biography of Chinese Scientific and Technological Experts], Vol.1 of Geology, Hebei: Hebei Jiaoyu Chubanshe, 1996, pp. 229.
[3] Yu Jianzhang, Baogao Shanxi Dizhi Lvxing Baogao [Report on Shanxi Trip], Beijing Daxue Rikan Daily, 1923 June 6th; See also Yu Jianzhang, Diaocha Lu Tangshan Qinghuangdao Shanhaiguan Yidai Dizhi Lvxingji Futu [Geological Travel Notes of Shanhaiguan, Qinhuangdao, Tangshan with Picture], Beijing Daxue Rikan Daily, 1923 December 28th. Li Siguang (1889-1971), was a Chinese geologist and politician. Li was the founder of the geomechanics in China, as well as one of the main leaders and founders of modern geoscience and geological work in China. For more information see Jiang Lai & Xiao Fen, Li Siguang[Li Siguang], Beijing: China Juvenile and Children Books Publishing House, 2005.
[4] ‘Beijing Sanda Xuesheng DiR’ [Students of Three Universities in Beijing Arrived in Japan], Shenbao, 1924 March 28th.
[5] China Association for Science and Technology, Zhongguo Kexue Jishu Zhuanjia Luezhuan, pp. 229-30. Zhongzhou University is the forerunner of today’s Henan University.
[6] Jianzhang Yu, ‘Huiyi Lisiguang Laoxiansheng [Memories of Li Siguang]’, in Tong Zongsheng, ed., Daxue Xiaozhang Yi Laoshi Sanwen Xuan, Hunan: Hunan Wenyi Chubanshe, 1995, pp.195.
[7] Stanley Smith (1883–1955) was a British geologist and academic. Dr. Smith became assistant lecturer in geology at the University of Bristol in 1922 and eventually retired from the university in 1948.
[8] Yu, ‘Yu Jianzhang Zi Yingguo Bulisituo Laihan’, pp. 844.
[9] Yu, ‘Yu Jianzhang Zi Yingguo Bulisituo Laihan’, pp. 844.
[10] Yu, ‘Huiyi Lisiguang Laoxiansheng’, pp.197-8.
[11] Yu, ‘Yu Jianzhang Zi Yingguo Bulisituo Laihan’, pp. 844.
[12] Western Daily Press, 8 September 1933; 25 October 1934, 28 September 1935.
[13] Western Daily Press, 18 December 1935.
[14] Yuan Tongli, ‘Doctoral Dissertations by Chinese Students in Great Britain
and Northern Ireland, 1916-1961’, Chinese Culture 4:4 (1963): 135.
[15] Stanley Smith & Chien Chang Yu, ‘A Revision of the Coral Genus Aulina Smith and Descriptions of New Species from Britain and China’, Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society 99 (1943): 37-61.
[16] Information provided by Jilin University.
[17] China Association for Science and Technology, Zhongguo Kexue Jishu Zhuanjia Luezhuan, pp. 238.