#PhDone! With Dr. Alice Would

In the latest in our #PhDone! series, we catch up with Dr. Alice Would, who recently finished her doctorate in the department.

Alice received funding from the South West and Wales Doctoral Training Partnership (SWWDTP) to undertake her PhD at the University of Bristol and the University of Exeter. She passed her viva in September 2021 and is currently a teacher in both History and Liberal Arts at Bristol. In December she will start as a Research Associate on Dr Andy Flack’s project ‘Dark-dwellers as more-than-human misfits.’

Portrait picture of Alice, with sunglasses on her head, rural background

Q: Hi, Alice! First of all, congratulations on your successful viva! Can you tell us a bit about what your doctoral research was about?

Thank you! My thesis was an environmental history of taxidermy in Britain in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Much of the historiography on natural history sees these creatures as static, frozen specimens, and as completely controlled by human culture.

By engaging with sensory studies, and theories on agency, embodiment, and materiality, I argued that taxidermy was still lively and mobile in death. I also talked about time, and how the more-than-human world has its own temporalities which meet and intersect with human conceptions of time. This is evident in taxidermy, which is always bound up in the processes of decay and restoration – with being eaten by insects and conserved with a needle and thread.

To try to get beyond the museum focus of most scholarship on natural history, I explored the movement of skins and specimens through trade networks: from skinning in the hunting field, and transportation in barrels of brine, to recreation on the taxidermist’s table and display in frenetic Victorian exhibition spaces. I undertook archival research in four museums in the South West, and in the Bodleian, and my source base included hunting diaries, taxidermy handbooks, newspapers, museum reports, and correspondence.

To try to get some hands-on experience, and to learn about the sensory aspects of taxidermy, I also completed a one-day taxidermy course.

Image shows an extract from the Pall Mall Gazette October 3 1884, with the edges of print text surrounding a cross-section of a lion, labelled with the letters A to G. The original caption reads 'How to set up a lion'

‘How to set up a lion’, in case any readers wanted to give taxidermy a go and have a dead lion to hand.

Q: Eeep. How did you become interested in taxidermy?

It’s a bit of a weird story! Some of my family used to live in Bristol, including my great-grandmother. She was a servant for a family in Clifton and would take their children to Bristol Zoo – this is in the 1930s. Because of the connections of the family, she and the children had the opportunity to walk the famous gorilla, Alfred, around the zoo with his keeper. Taxidermied Alfred is now on display in Bristol Museum, so I was intrigued when I learnt I had a family connection to him!

I was already interested in environmental history by this point, so I decided to develop a project researching the animality of the taxidermy in Bristol Museum. This became my MPhil project. My PhD took this further by exploring the liveliness of taxidermy on the journey to and beyond museum sites.

Q: Any top tips for lunch spots near your archives/libraries/museum collections/the Bristol University campus?

Near the campus, Eat a Pitta is always a great option, and you can sit and eat in Brandon Hill with a fabulous view. This also goes for Pinkman’s sough-dough-nuts, which you could have for lunch if you ate enough of them. I also have a soft spot for Beijing Cooking Pot, on Perry Road, especially if you’re feeling really peckish. For anyone researching at the Wellcome Library, the King of Falafel stand just outside Euston is phenomenal.

Q: Let’s talk about the viva itself. What would you advise someone who is preparing for their own viva?

When preparing for the viva think about big themes, overarching questions, and any problems – these kinds of things will likely be helpful for lots of different lines of questioning.

I did a mock interview with my supervisors the week before, and this was handy for getting used to speaking about the thesis. I was very used to writing about the topic but speaking about it feels completely different!

I’d also recommend thinking carefully about the words in your title and coming to the viva prepared to explain these choices to your examiners.

Q: What’s next for you? Where can we find your research now?

In December I will be starting as a Research Associate on Dr Andy Flack’s project ‘Dark-dwellers as more-than-human misfits’, exploring perceptions of the adaptations of nocturnal and dark-adapted animals. I’m really excited about this – Andy’s research combines lots of my interests in sensory, animal, and environmental histories. I’m also very pleased to be staying in Bristol for the time being!

I have an article called ‘Tactile Taxidermy’ in Environment and History. I’ve also written blog posts and essays for History Today, Environmental History Now, and the White Horse Press, and hope to turn my thesis into a monograph in the not-so-distant future.


Featured Historian: Sarah Jones

Sarah Jones is Lecturer in Modern British History. She is a social and cultural historian, and most of her work looks at themes around gender, sexuality, and the history of science and medicine in the 19th and 20th centuries. Her current research looks really closely at print culture, thinking about how the public engaged with scientific ideas about sex through magazines, advice texts, and the news.

Portrait picture of Dr. Sarah Jones, smiling

What’s the title of your new article, and what’s it about?

My latest article is ‘Science, Sexual Difference, and the Making of Modern Marriages, 1920-1940.’

In it, I look at how advice texts in the early twentieth century discussed sexual difference, and specifically the idea that men and women had specific, and very different, roles to play in the marital bedroom. I essentially show that during a period of great upheaval and anxiety, advice authors argued that notions of sexually passive women and sexually active men were biologically mandated – even if they didn’t provide much proof for those claims, or make use of much scientific evidence at all.

In doing so, they cobbled together material to try and show that heterosexual marriage was right, natural, somewhat inevitable, and that anyone who strayed away from this was abnormal or even pathological.

Long story short, it is about how apparently ‘scientific’ ideas were marshalled to uphold a particular, quite conservative sexual status quo during a moment of real social change. This all speaks to my broader interest in ‘popular’ sexual science – I’m slowly putting a book together called The Science of Sex Advice: Popular Sexology in Print.

How did you become interested in histories of sexual science?

I’ve been interested in the relationship between sex, science, and print culture for a long time.

My PhD looked at how print culture facilitated sex radical networks in Britain and America, and particularly how ‘free lovers’ on both sides of the Atlantic used scientific ideas and rhetoric to challenge the idea that orthodox marriage was a good idea. After that I was a research fellow on a project called Rethinking Sexology at the University of Exeter, where I started working on popular sex advice and magazines. As part of that I spent a lot of time reading some of the brilliant new scholarship on sexual science, and also camping out in archives in both the US and UK to work through some amazing primary materials – stuff like sex advice pamphlets sold in vending machines and train station platforms for a couple of cents a go, slightly racy texts sold through mail order in the back of newspapers, and expensive manuals written by scientists and sexologists that were apparently only for the eyes of ‘professionals and academics.’ There’s such fantastic work being done on histories of sexual science, including some exciting new bits of scholarship on how the public engaged with science when making sense of their own sex lives. I hope my work can be part of those conversations

Magazine feature titled 'The Mysteries of Sex Frankly Revealed!' includes text reading 'Banish Fear Prevent Disease End Self Denial and Stop Worrying Conquer Ignorance and Overcome Shame, as well as images of puzzled men and women, and a doctor figure showing a couple a book entitled 'Sex Harmony and Eugenics'

What is the importance of the history of sexuality today?

I think, for me, there’s so much to be said about how an engagement with science has shaped the way we think about sex. It might seem like a bit of a niche topic, but actually the way we talk and think about sex – even today –  is absolutely replete with scientific ideas.

Why, for example, do we often use terms like ‘homosexual’ and ‘heterosexual’ (which emerged from nineteenth-century sexology) to categorize ourselves? Why are some people so obsessed with looking for a ‘gay gene’?

Why are we told that certain sexual behaviours and identities are good or bad for our health, or are perhaps ‘natural’ or ‘unnatural’? Part of my work speaks to these kinds of questions, thinking through how and why science has come to have so big a role in how we understand, discuss, and experience sexuality.

More broadly, I think that in a fraught social and political moment histories of gender and sexuality are more important than ever. I’ve been lucky enough to work with scholars trying to use history to find more helpful and inclusive ways to do sex education in schools, and to help young trans and non-binary people navigate the modern medical system. Historians in the field have been called on to shape policies around things like access to abortion, gay marriage, and how to tackle sexual violence. Doing histories of gender and sexuality helps us develop our understanding and appreciation of the past but, beyond that, engaging with that history also allows us to gain new insights into urgent and timely issues in the present. 

What advice would you give to a student interested in the history of sexuality?

Be careful when opening some kinds of primary sources in public areas.

I was working on a train once and the person in the seat next to me threatened to have me arrested. It wasn’t even anything that bad, but that’s public transport for you.

What’s the best advice you ever got about history?

Someone once told me that it’s a gift to be able to indulge your curiosity, especially for a living. Not always a particularly accurate depiction of my job, to be fair, but I try and remember it when I’ve got a huge pile of reading to do.

What’s the most interesting thing you’ve read in the last twelve months?

That’s a tough one. History-wise, I really enjoyed Martha Robinson Rhodes’ article on Bisexuality, Multiple-Gender-Attraction, and Gay Liberation Politics in the 1970s, so probably that.

I’ve finally gotten around to starting Kate Lister’s A Curious History of Sex, too, which is really fun so far.  I also read some good books this summer that were very much for pleasure, not work. Susanna Clarke’s Piranesi was mind-boggling (in a good way, I think) and I quite enjoyed Emily Danforth’s Plain Bad Heroines. 

If you had a time machine, where and when would you most want to go?

My official answer to this is that I’d go back to have a raucous dinner party with some of the Victorian sex radicals I studied as part of my PhD. However, the truth is that I’d go back to 1997 and watch the Spice Girls at Wembley again.

What’s your must-do Bristol experience?

I’m pretty new to Bristol so don’t have many suggestions, but so far I’d recommend Pinkmans for donuts and Bakesmiths for cinnamon rolls. All the major food groups covered, what more do you need?

What are you working on next?

Loads of stuff!

I’m slowly making progress on the book, and I’m also working a new article on the concept of happiness and how this has been connected to ideas about good sex. I’m starting a new project which looks to encourage people to engage with queer history though playing games, and am also doing research into how we can help students transition from school to university.

Should keep me out of trouble for a little while, at least…


PhDone! With Dr. Jiayi Tao

In the latest in this new series, we talk to Dr. Jiayi Tao about her doctorate, recently completed in the department.

Under the support of the China Scholarship Council, Jiayi Tao carried out her PhD project at the University of Bristol, passing her viva in September 2021. Her research interests lie in the history of international humanitarianism and modern Chinese history.

portrait picture of Dr. Jiayi Tao

Hi Jiayi: first of all, congratulations on your successful viva! What was your doctoral research about?

My doctoral research focuses on the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA)’s operations in China (1943-1947).

It is a brief but crucial episode for us to understand the rise of non-western actors in the history of internationalism and that of humanitarianism. As the first executive organisation of the United Nations, UNRRA had a far-flung scope. It was aimed at solving various post-war problems through international cooperation.

Black and white photo of trucks being unloaded

UNRRA trucks and gasoline being unloaded in Changsha, capital of China’s Henan province (UNA: S-0801-0011-0001-00007)

While historians have highlighted UNRRA’s role in dealing with Europe’s refugee crisis in the aftermath of the Second World War, we still know little about UNRRA’s cooperation with the Chinese Nationalist government, at a time when China was released from its one and only task of resisting Japan, a task that had lasted for eight years.

The distinctiveness of the case of UNRRA in China also lies in the fact that China emerged in the post-war era as a fully sovereign state, after the 1943 abrogation of the so-called ‘unequal treaties’ with imperial powers.

My thesis not only explores the ambition and capability of Chinese nationalists to utilise international aid, but also shows the response of Chinese civil society to changing Sino-foreign relations and the experience of foreigners who worked for China’s post-war relief and rehabilitation undertakings.

How did you become interested in the history of UNRRA in China?

I was initially interested in the history of post-war China. My Masters dissertation looks at the staff reorganisation and post-war rehabilitation of the Chinese Maritime Customs Service in the mid-1940s.

This research led me to the topics of rising nationalism and anti-foreign, notably anti-American, sentiment in post-war China. Just before 1945, the United States was still China’s most powerful and reliable ally and enjoyed reputation among Chinese public. I want to understand this rapid change in Sino-foreign relations on the ground, and I find that the scholarship of modern Chinese history has been almost exclusively focused on the Chinese Civil War (1946-1949).

I then shifted my focus to the UNRRA China Programme and sought to situate this case study in a broader scholarship of international humanitarianism.

Let’s talk about the viva itself. What would you advise someone who is preparing for their own viva?

I would say: don’t have prepared answers or try to guess what the examiners will ask, as some viva questions will always be unexpected.

But I think it is useful to try to conclude your key argument and key conceptual contribution. This is a step back to look at your thesis thoroughly, not just as an author but also as a reader. There are other tips that can help build your confidence, such as reading your examiners’ work and being familiar with your own thesis.

I would quote my supervisor’s words of encouragement for anyone who is preparing for viva: you have worked on this research for years and read more widely in this field than anyone else… including your examiners. So, whatever your examiners ask, you will have something to say!

Lastly, keep in mind that viva is a constructive process!

What’s next for you, Jiayi?

I will soon start a post-doctoral programme in the Shanghai Jiao Tong University. It is a new but exciting challenge. And I am working on developing a chapter of my thesis into a journal article, as well as developing a book proposal.

We look forward to seeing this work out in the wild! Thanks for talking to us today!

PhDone! With Dr. Daniel Booker

In the latest in this new series, we talk to Dr. Daniel Booker about his doctorate, recently completed in the department.

After studying for his undergraduate and masters degrees at the University of East Anglia, Dan Booker (He/Him) received funding to undertake his PhD in History at the University of Bristol in 2018. Dan passed his viva in September 2021 and is currently a tutor at the University of Bristol and Research Associate at the University of Lancaster.

Black and white portrait of Dan Booker, wearing glasses

Hi Dan. First of all, congratulations on your successful viva! Can you tell us a bit about what your doctoral research was about?

My research explores the ways in which medieval bureaucratic institutions, routines, and cadres of officials could shape the exercise of power in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. Specifically, my thesis focuses upon King John of England’s relationship with the exchequer (the body responsible for collecting and auditing debts owed to the king within his kingdom), as well as similar bureaucratic organisations operating within John’s various other domains, to explore the ways in which this institution could facilitate and/or impede the exercise of power by the king over his subjects.

Whilst my research deepens our understanding of how the exchequer could serve as a potent tool of political, social and financial discipline, my thesis also argues that institutionalisation, inertia and officialdom within this organisation simultaneously constrained royal agency and the king’s ability to raise finances in ways that carried profound consequences for the tenor and development of royal government in England and Ireland in the thirteenth century and beyond.

Overall, my thesis demands that we consider how rulers’ behaviour was shaped by the institutions and officials which underpinned their rule.

What did you enjoy most about your project?

Whilst the majority of my primary sources are available in print, the most enjoyable and exciting aspects of my research involved visiting archives to engage with original manuscript documents in situ. You’ll always be surprised at what you find (or what others have missed) when you work with even the most well-known or well-studied documents, and some of the most important findings of my own research came from chance discoveries in manuscripts.

Image of a medieval manuscript

PR 1 John (TNA: E 372/45, rot.18d m.1)

My best piece of advice for anyone about to undertake archival research is to take pictures of everything you look at, as you never know what will become useful further down the line!

Let’s talk about the viva itself. What would you advise someone who is preparing for their own viva?

I would echo a lot of the advice my peers have already provided.

Try not to overprepare, but in the end do whatever makes you feel most comfortable and confident going into the viva. Before my own viva I re-read my thesis once in full, as well as some key pieces of secondary literature and some of my internal and external examiners’ publications. Whilst you can’t ever predict exactly what your examiners will ask you, I did find it useful preparation to go come up with answers to some of the most common questions that are asked by examiners (the BDC’s training sessions on vivas are great in that respect!) and rehearse them with friends, colleagues and family members.

When re-reading my thesis I also found it beneficial to try to reframe any potential ‘weaknesses’ or shortcomings that came up as conscious choices and to think carefully about why I chose to structure my thesis/approach a subject in this or that way. Apart from that, always take a moment to collect yourself when you’re asked a question and always address the examiner’s question first (even if you don’t know the answer) before going on a tangent!

What’s next for you? Where can we find your research now?

For now I am splitting my time between teaching at Bristol and working as a Research Associate for Lancaster University on a project that will create a class-list of documents relating to the earldom-duchy of Lancaster’s Lancashire lands (1267-1348) which are held at The National Archives in Kew.

In terms of my research and writing, I published an article earlier this year within the Journal of Medieval History, and I have a co-authored chapter coming out next year as part of the forthcoming Cambridge Companion to the Age of William the Conqueror.

Now that I have finished my PhD, I am looking to approach potential publishers with a view to converting my thesis into a monograph.

We’re looking forward to it, too!

PhDone! With Dr. Blanche Plaquevent

In the latest in this new series, we talk to Dr. Blanche Plaquevent about her doctorate, recently completed in the department.

After studying in Paris, Blanche Plaquevent received funding from the SWW DTP to do her PhD at the University of Bristol. She passed her viva in July 2021 and will be working as a lecturer in history of gender and sexuality at the University of Glasgow from September.


Hi, Blanche! First of all, congratulations on your successful viva! Can you tell us a bit about what your doctoral research was about?

My thesis explores how the idea of sexual revolution got constructed as a political concept in France between 1945 and 1970. Historians have debated on whether a sexual revolution really took place in Europe and North America in the sixties-seventies. My research sheds a new light on this debate by approaching the term of ‘sexual revolution’ literally, as a political concept used at the time to articulate revolutionary politics and sexuality. I explore how revolutionary sexual politics emerged and circulated nationally and transnationally. Relying on published sources about sex and politics from the period 1945-1970 (books, magazines, journals), testimonies, private archives from activists and intellectuals, leaflets, billboards, university and police archives and newspapers, my research traces the emergence of the idea that the personal is political before its widespread advent in the seventies.

Portrait image of Blanche Plaquevent, standing in front of a canal

What did you enjoy most about your project?

For the period that I was studying (1945-1970) and the type of sources I used, very few documents were digitised. It meant that I travelled a lot to access my sources and I really enjoyed it. Although it required a lot of work and organisation, I discovered many different archival centres and visited various cities, such as Paris, Dijon, Strasbourg, Marseille, Caen, and even Amsterdam. It made research really fun and exciting. I guess I was lucky that it was all before the pandemic!


Let’s talk about the viva itself. What would you advise someone who is preparing for their own viva?

Don’t overprepare!

I read my PhD once (and worryingly realised I had already forgotten full passages!), and then re-read a few key passages like the introduction and the conclusion. If you can, get one or two friends/colleagues/family members to ask you questions. It can be useful even if they are not really familiar with your research. Being asked very general questions forces you to take a step back and consider your research from a different perspective. Finally, be honest with yourself and acknowledge the potential issues you can identify in your research, and try to articulate why you have made these choices, or even what you would have liked to do differently. I found that being aware of my own shortcomings and trying to understand them (without defending my past choices at all costs) helped me to consider my work confidently before the viva.

Black and white photo shows the wreckage of a car in the foreground and graffiti in the background reading 'je sevis dans les pavés'

Photography by Jo Snapp, published in Walter Lewino, L’Imagination au pouvoir (Paris: Allia, 2018). Available online: http://docpresse.esj-lille.fr/archives/index.php/page/5/

How did you manage the submission of your PhD and job applications in the last year?

Following the advice of my supervisors, I began to formulate a postdoc proposal in the middle of my third year and it came in very handy when I had to start applying for jobs during the 4th year of my PhD. I started applying to grants and academic jobs at the end of 2020, and it intensified between March and July 2021 as more jobs were advertised. I submitted my PhD for examination at the end of April and then had more time to prepare my applications. I must say that receiving waves of job rejections just after submitting the PhD was sometimes challenging. It was hard not to let it cast a shadow on the achievement that is finishing a thesis!


What’s next for you? Where can we find your research and/or writing now?

I am joining the University of Glasgow as a lecturer in the history of gender and sexuality. I’ll be teaching undergraduates and postgraduates students and I will be in charge of the International History Summer School.

To find out more about my research, if you speak French, you can read an article I published in Ethnologie Française in 2019 to introduce my research. I am currently working on an article in English which aims at exploring the specificity of postwar French sexual politics in comparison with other forms of sexual politics we are more familiar with today. I hope to submit it soon and I will also shortly start working on the publication of my monograph.

PhDone! With Dr. Xiao Liu

In the second of a new series, we talk to recent doctoral graduate Dr. Xiao Liu about his  research project, viva, and plans for the future.

Xiao (Shawn) Liu just completed his PhD in History in the University of Bristol, studying with Prof. Robert Bickers and Dr Adrian Howkins. His research interest is modern Chinese history, especially the development of science during the period of the Republic of China.

Portrait picture of Dr. Xiao Liu

Q: Hi Xiao. First of all, congratulations on your successful viva! Can you tell us a bit about what your doctoral research was about?

My PhD project is about ‘Meteorology and Politics in Republican China, 1912-1949’, which aims to understand how science was applied by the Chinese Republican State to serve its state-building ambitions. As meteorology achieved a certain development during the Republican era, my thesis demonstrates meteorological achievements as well as explains aspects benefited from meteorological progress. This project intends to advance discussion of the relationship between science and the state, arguing that emerging nations in what we would now call the ‘global south’ also accorded strategic importance to science in national development, including both economic development and their challenge of imperialism. As a soft power tool, boosting national science became a means to contest foreign power in early twentieth century, thus with focusing on the case of the Chinese Republican State, my thesis provides some insight into understanding history of science in others countries as well.


Q: How did you become interested in the history of meteorology in China?

I always have a strong interest in history, especially Chinese history. Although my undergraduate major was not related to history, I did attend several courses from the Department of History, which laid a solid foundation for my future research.

In recent years, the history of Chinese science has received more attention than before, and I became curious about scientific development in China. I chose to focus on the period of the Republic of China. After I started my PhD project, I found that meteorological factors were involved in many historical events, so it motivated me to further study it through my research.

Black and white photograph shows esuit-made instruments at the Imperial Observatory in 1945

Unknown photographer. Image courtesy of Stanfield Family, University of Bristol (https://www.hpcbristol.net/visual/js04-045)

Q: What surprised you most doing this research?

Regarding my research, what surprised me most was that there were a huge number of materials relating to my project, much more than I expected.

I did make research on the archives I planned to consult but was a little worried about it because their online websites did not include much useful information for my own project. But when I visited the archives in China, they did store rich materials to support my research. Thus, basing on my experience, it is really important to do field research or archival trips.


Q: Any top tips for lunch spots near the Bristol University campus… or the archives you visited?

As my flat is very close to the campus of University of Bristol, I have rich time to walk around our campus and to explore it more comprehensively. There is a small garden behind the building on the Priory Road which is a very nice place, so it is quite convenient for people of our department to go for a walk there when they want to have some relax.

Regarding archives, most archives in China do not have café, so it is better to bring some food in case there is not any restaurant near the archives.


Q: Let’s talk about the viva itself. What would you advise someone who is preparing for their own viva?

I highly recommend the examinees to read their PhD thesis again before attending the viva. Do not take ready-made answers because the examiners may ask questions from the high-level conceptual to the detailed ones, so there are always some questions you do not prepare. If you have enough time, maybe read the work of the examiners in advance. When you attend the viva, be confidence with yourself, because it is your thesis, you are the expert on it.


Q: What’s next for you? Where can we find your research and/or writing now?

I just participated the 26th International Congress of History of Science and Technology on 30th July, during which I presented my paper about the ‘Application of Meteorology by the Republic of China in the Development of Rural Areas’.

I will return to China in the autumn and will pursue a post-doc.


PhDone! with Dr. Thomas M. Larkin

In the first of a new series, we talk to recent doctoral graduate Dr. Thomas Larkin about his  research project, viva, and plans for the future.

Thomas M. Larkin is the Augustine Heard Fellow at the University of Bristol, and a member of the Hong Kong History Project. His current research concerns nineteenth-century Anglo-American and Sino-American social and cultural interactions in China, and the application of global-microhistorical and transimperial methodologies.

Picture shows a portrait of Thomas Larkin

Q: Hi Thomas. First of all, congratulations on your successful viva! Can you tell us a bit about what your doctoral research was about?

My doctoral research focused on the American firm Augustine Heard & Company, active in China and throughout East Asia in the mid-to-late nineteenth century. I used the case study of the firm and its leading partners to argue that the American merchant community active in Hong Kong and China’s treaty ports selectively adapted to British colonial society and culture to advance their personal and commercial position in China, and that in the process they helped consolidate and entrench the racial and socio-cultural hierarchies developing in these ports.

The project was also designed to play with scale and to provide a framework with which global and microhistorical methodologies could be combined. The case study of the firm was analysed within increasingly broad geographic and temporal contexts to better understand how it fit in with the histories of China, Britain, and the United States.


Q: How did you become interested in Augustine Heard & Co?

I had originally applied to Bristol with the intention of studying Western indigents in Shanghai’s International Settlement. My early interests were in the relationship between race and class in China, the ways foreigners structured their society to uphold barriers between themselves and the Chinese, and how Chinese observers viewed these potentially embarrassing lower-class Whites. A study of the elite partners of Augustine Heard & Co., with its prominent position amongst the Western firms, seemed a rather dramatic step in the opposite direction. But when I started doing early research into the project and what might be done with it, I found that many of the themes I was interested in remained accessible through the company records – if from a different perspective. Perhaps more significantly, the Heard brothers seemed almost omnipresent in the history of nineteenth-century Sino-Western contact. At least one of the brothers at some point or another bore first-hand witness to the major developments that shaped Sino-Western commerce and politics. I had always wanted to write a global micro-history, and the ubiquity of the Heards made it an increasingly tangible possibility.

Black and white photograph depicts St John's Cathedral and the Augustine Heard & Company house.

St John’s Cathedral and the Augustine Heard & Company house, see www.hpcbristol.net, vh03-29

Q: What did you enjoy most about your project?

I think the most gratifying aspect of the project was deep-diving into the Heard archive and sharing my discoveries with the project’s benefactor, George Cautherley. George is a descendant of the Heard family, and as a tangential product of this research we have been able to confirm many of the particulars of his relationship with his ancestors and with Hong Kong, including the direct line that connects him to one of the firm’s earliest partners, John Heard. It has been fantastic getting to share some of the more significant discoveries with George, and he has been both open to learning more of the family and forthcoming with his own thoughts, advice, introductions, and input. While there were always significant academic contributions that I intended to make with my project, I have also greatly enjoyed these informal exchanges.


Q: Any top tips for lunch spots near your archives / libraries / museum collections?


I am currently based out of Richmond, within walking distance of the National Archives, and I can’t recommend highly enough escaping the archives on a sunny day and doing your readings by the riverside. At Harvard’s Baker Library I kept to the school cafeteria which is, admittedly, excellent, and has the added bonus of only requiring two minutes of outdoor travel to reach on frigid February mornings. Anything further afield was risky, as while I am Canadian, four years in the UK has ruined my tolerance to the cold.

I’ve a bad habit of forgetting lunch when working, but I do love a good coffeeshop. My preferred café-turned-workspace in Boston, Explorateur, seems to have not survived the pandemic, but if a seat can be found the Tatte Café on Charles Street or the Thinking Cup on Newbury are both good spaces. Classified on Hollywood Road in Hong Kong eased the completion of both a journal article and a chapter, as did Café Libero in Da’an, Taipei (although neither is particularly close to an archive).


Q: Let’s talk about the viva itself. What would you advise someone who is preparing for their own viva?

The best advice I received from Robert Bickers and that I would pass on to anyone else is not to over-prepare. I’m not suggesting slacking off, but there is truly no sense in trying to guess what the examiners are going to ask. Both my examiners had excellent questions and insight, but almost none of it was anything I had anticipated beforehand. Reread the thesis a few days before, relax the night of, and treat the viva as a very productive opportunity to get some targeted feedback that will, ideally, make the eventual manuscript a much stronger piece of research.


Q: What’s next for you? Where can we find your research and/or writing now?

At the time of writing, I am currently preparing to move to Bristol in September, as I have continued on with the university as Augustine Heard Fellow. I have been remote for the last three and a half years of study, and its about time to do away with the tedious commute from London. I’m in the process of revising an article and working on developing the manuscript to pitch to publishers. I’ve got a couple other projects in the works and am solidifying a plan for the next big research undertaking, but have mostly been enjoying the chance to dig deeper and write about some of the topics that I didn’t get to explore much in the thesis.

Becoming a Public Historian: Issy Coleman

In this series, Dr Jessica Moody, unit co-ordinator of the third year Practice-Based Dissertation option, interviews students about their projects and experiences of this unit. The Practice-Based Dissertation was first introduced at Bristol in 2020-21 and enables students to produce a practical, public-facing ‘public history’ output as well as a 5000 word Critical Reflective Report.

In this interview, Jessica talks to Issy Coleman about her project.

JM: Let’s start from the beginning, what made you choose the Practice-Based Dissertation over the standard Dissertation?

IC: I chose the Practice-Based Dissertation over the standard dissertation because, truthfully, I did not want to write another standard history essay. As history students, we have written countless essays during our undergraduate degree, and therefore I felt the Practice-Based Dissertation would give me the opportunity to try something new. It would push me out of my comfort zone, enable me to be creative and original, and develop new skills. I got a taste of what ‘public history’ entailed in the second-year core module ‘History in Public’, as well as the special field unit ‘Remembering Transatlantic Enslavement.’ Both units were hindered due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Nevertheless, they were interesting and therefore I knew I wanted to explore the public history field further.

JM: Could you tell us about your public history project?

IC: My public-facing project is a blog on two important histories of Black popular protest in Bristol: the St Pauls disturbance (1980) and the fall of the Colston statue (2020). My blog has several entries on these two events, exploring the themes of race, law and order, and activism. The idea is that each entry allows me to look at different angles and perspectives, placing different lens’ on the history of these two significant events. One of the main goals for my public-facing project was to open the conversation about these two histories. In order to achieve this, I integrated an interactive ‘Padlet’ feature onto my website whereby users could contribute and converse about the topics discussed.

JM: Why did you want to undertake this project?

IC: I think probably because the removal of Edward Colston’s statue is so recent, these are two histories that have not yet been explored together, so my hope was to tread new ground with an original idea and analysis. Additionally, since arriving in Bristol to begin university in late 2018, I have been fascinated by the city’s history, particularly that of transatlantic enslavement. I have since felt passionate to explore the other angles of the city’s history.

Screenshot of Issy Coleman's blog page

JM: What did you enjoy most about the Practice-Based Dissertation?

IC: I really enjoyed the process of creating, designing, and editing my website. I felt very proud to see my ideas come together in one space.

JM: What did you find challenging?

IC: I found it difficult to strike a balance with the language and tone of my blog posts. I tried to limit the use of jargon to make my blog accessible to the widest possible audience as well as maximise user engagement and understanding. I also found writing my report was difficult at times. Previously in my degree, I had never had to reflect on my practice or speak in the first person. It felt particularly strange to acknowledge the aspects of my work that didn’t go so well.

JM: Did you come across any problems that you needed to address or solve?

IC: One problem that I encountered, which is a pertinent issue for public historians, was gaining access to authorised images of the St Pauls disturbance (1980) that could be used on my website. This was made even harder with the pandemic, as I could not visit archives to see available images. In hindsight, this is something that I should have considered earlier in the process.

JM: What do you feel you’ve learnt from this process?

IC: I have learnt how important and relevant public history really is. Understanding the past is a gateway to understanding the present, and public history offers exciting and creative ways that that this can be done.

JM: What do you think public history needs more of? Do you have any reflections or advice from your project for public historians?

IC: Based on public history related literature, collaboration is at the core of the discipline. Therefore, I think that public historians must not only continue to collaborate with each other, but also the general public. It is the public that is at the heart of this strand of history, and so to be successful we must ensure that we are constantly communicating and engaging with them.

JM: What advice do you have for students just starting the Practice-Based Dissertation?

IC: I would probably say start early with creating your public-facing project. From my own experience, creating the website took much longer than I had anticipated. You need to factor in time for things to go ‘wrong’, for example I had serious technical difficulties with my website that I hadn’t really accounted for within my schedule of completion. In addition, this probably applies for both the standard dissertation and the Practice-Based one, but choose a topic you are really interested in. The dissertation is an 8-month process and therefore you need to remain interested in your topic throughout. I think it would be hard to stay motivated otherwise.

JM: How can people find out more about your project?

IC: The blog can be found here.

JM: Is there anything else you’d like to add?

IC: For anyone contemplating whether to choose the Practice-Based Dissertation – go for it! I am so glad that I took this unit as opposed to the standard 10,000-word dissertation, and I know so many people that wish they had chosen it.



Becoming a Public Historian: Josh Hillman

In this series, Dr Jessica Moody, unit co-ordinator of the third year Practice-Based Dissertation option, interviews students about their projects and experiences of this unit. The Practice-Based Dissertation was first introduced at Bristol in 2020-21 and enables students to produce a practical, public-facing ‘public history’ output as well as a 5000 word Critical Reflective Report.

In this interview, Jessica talks to Josh Hillman about his project.


JM: Let’s start from the beginning, what made you choose the Practice-Based Dissertation over the standard Dissertation?

JH: Whilst I’ve mostly enjoyed essay writing at University, the prospect of undertaking a piece of work that enabled me to showcase a different set of skills really appealed to me. Also, the possibility of producing a project that could help educate and influence people outside of University gave a purpose beyond merely completing my degree, which really motivated and inspired me.

Portrait of Josh Hillman

JM: Could you tell us about your public history project?

JH: The project I created was a website about the Second Iraq War and British Terrorist events. The site combines the use of short documentaries, information pages, interactive quizzes and learning tools in order to educate people about the links between British action in Iraq and events of Islamic extremism. The site’s main goal is to exist as an online ‘lesson’, meaning the content is presented in a format whereby the site user is guided through the site, building their knowledge and understanding as they interact with the content.

JM: Why did you want to undertake this project?

JH: As well as these events and issues being particularly interesting to me, my project aims to achieve multiple objectives. Firstly and most importantly, it counters racist and Islamophobic narratives that currently exist in society by exhibiting how British military and political failures have contributed to creating a society whereby the risk of Islamic terrorist attacks are a reality. The project also contributes to the field of history by placing the Second Iraq War into ‘history’, as we reach a time where it becomes removed from current affairs. Doing so is important due to both secondary school and University students no longer benefitting from having a lived experience of the events.

Screenshot of Britain, Iraq and Terrorism website

JM: What did you enjoy most about the Practice-Based Dissertation?

JH: Having the ability to work on a project that led me to using many different skillsets (as well as learning lots of new ones) first and foremost made the project extremely enjoyable. The Practice-Based Dissertation also gives you much more freedom than the standard 10,000-word dissertation. Whilst there’s still the requirement to produce an output, how you go about that is completely up to you. The combination of this freedom and this new way of working really motivated me and made me feel like I was working more like I would in a job as opposed to how people traditionally work at University, and as a final-year student that feeling was the most enjoyable thing about doing this style of dissertation.

JM: What did you find challenging?

JH: The same freedom that made this project so fun also presented a lot of challenges. Creating a website meant that the amount of information I could have potentially included was endless and having to limit myself in what I produced was difficult. This was made harder by the fact that the Practice-Based Dissertation also requires you to write a 5,000-word report on your project and trying to ensure I balanced my time out in a sort of even manner between the two was also challenging.

JM: Did you come across any problems that you needed to address or solve?

JH: The main problem I found with the creating of a Public History project was the legality of using images/video from other sites or authors as part of my project. When creating my documentaries, I really wanted to use real footage of the events I was describing in order that my videos were engaging and interesting. This meant spending a lot of time finding footage that was copyright free, and also making sure that I provided attribution for absolutely everything that required it. Obviously this took up a decent amount of time – meaning that I really had to learn to allocate time in my planning to dealing with unforeseen obstacles.

JM: What do you feel you’ve learnt from this process?

JH: From creating my project I’ve really come to appreciate the value of Public History. The majority of people learn their history not from academic journals or books but from websites, exhibitions and TV etc, meaning that these projects are extremely important in shaping and influencing peoples perspectives and understandings. As a result of this, I think University History students should do more to interact with Public History.

JM: What do you think public history needs more of? Do you have any reflections or advice from your project for public historians?

JH: I think Public History needs more historians presenting their expertise in the shape of Public History projects. Doing so would improve the amount of materials available for the public to engage with, and as historians we surely want as many people to know as much about history as possible! If I were to give any advice to public historians, it would be to expect the unexpected when creating a project, as new information, issues and challenges can arise at any time and change the way you create your project.

JM: What advice do you have for students just starting the Practice-Based Dissertation?

JH: Work out the purpose of your project early on. Therefore, once you start designing your project and content, you can always refer back to your purpose to help you shape your work. Also, there is great value in engaging with other people who are doing the PBD as you can see what good ideas and challenges they also have, which can help improve your own project.

JM: How can people find out more about your project?

JH: The website is available at this address: www.britainiraqterrorism.co.uk

JM: Is there anything else you’d like to add?

JH: I think I’ve covered everything I had to say. Thank you!

Becoming a Public Historian: Nicola Howard

In this series, Dr Jessica Moody, unit co-ordinator of the third year Practice-Based Dissertation option, interviews students about their projects and experiences of this unit. The Practice-Based Dissertation was first introduced at Bristol in 2020-21 and enables students to produce a practical, public-facing ‘public history’ output as well as a 5000 word Critical Reflective Report.

In this interview, Jessica talks to Nicola Howard about her project.


JM: Let’s start from the beginning, what made you choose the Practice-Based Dissertation over the standard Dissertation?

NH: I decided to do the Practice-Based Dissertation after really enjoying throwing myself into the second year Public History Project for assessment during lockdown (for the core second year unit, History in Public), where I created a campaign displaying the history of the university’s new Temple Meads Campus. I achieved the best grade of my university career thus far in this assessment, and realised I really enjoyed thinking about how I could communicate history to the public through design. I jumped at the opportunity to do something so fun and creative as my dissertation.

Portrait image of Nicola

JM: Could you tell us about your public history project?

NH: I created an Instagram account called Fighting Fake History to raise awareness of the issue of fake history on social media. To compliment this, I also created a website where you could find out more about the project and the creator.

JM: Why did you want to undertake this project?

NH: I realised very early on that I wanted to address the dangers and the nature of fake history online as I saw many examples happening around me. I felt like it was a branch of fake news that isn’t very well explored, and mostly goes unchallenged as social media users don’t usually critically analyse every post they see. I wanted to reach the young adult age range, so I made an Instagram account to connect this information to them.

Logo shows a magnifying glass, and the text 'Fighting Fake History'

JM: What did you enjoy most about the Practice-Based Dissertation?

NH: I enjoyed creating for my Instagram account the most. A lot of hours went into researching and deciding a colour palate and design style that would excite and entice my audience. I also created a logo for it, which made it feel like a real brand. It was really satisfying when these elements started clicking together.

I also really enjoyed the fact that my style of intervention was totally unique, as it did more than just point out different fake histories but also raised awareness of the dangers of habitual, uncritical engagement with material on social media.

Screenshot of Instagram posts from the Fighting Fake History handle

JM: What did you find challenging?

NH: I found balancing the workload challenging, especially as I changed my output idea quite close to the end. When it came to posting on the Instagram account, I wasn’t as consistent as I would have liked due to also trying to write my report and fulfil other uni/extra-curricular commitments. If I were to go back I would have definitely tried to make these decisions a little bit earlier on, but sometimes these things just happen and creative inspiration comes at awkward times!

JM: Did you come across any problems that you needed to address or solve?

NH: The reason why I changed my project close to the end was to solve an issue of reach. I was originally going to create three infographic posters to display this information on a website, which I could circulate online. However, to reach my target audience, I didn’t think this was an appropriate medium, nor one with much shareability to spread the message. To overcome this, I researched different platforms and changed my output to Instagram and a website to increase accessibility.

Logo reads 'Question What You See'

JM: What do you feel you’ve learnt from this process?

NH: I have learnt to have more confidence in my skills and ideas as a historian. Often, the essays and assessments you write throughout your undergraduate degree just get suspended on blackboard for eternity. The practice-based dissertation, however, brings your ideas alive and to the public. I learnt to embrace this and step outside of my comfort zone.

JM: What do you think public history needs more of? Do you have any reflections or advice from your project for public historians?

NH: I think social media could be used more as a tool to connect more young people to history in engaging ways.

JM: What advice do you have for students just starting the Practice-Based Dissertation?

NH: Try your best to make what you do as unique as you possibly can. For me, this involved making an intervention into something that no one else had done and it was really rewarding.

Also, keep asking questions to yourself about why you are doing things the way you are, as it will help inform your report.

JM: How can people find out more about your project?

NH: You can find out more about my project by following the Instagram account and reading through the posts!